Jump to content

Some research on Pertussis outbreaks


  • Please log in to reply
11 replies to this topic

#1 EBeditor

Posted 28 April 2012 - 06:28 PM

Vaccination has been a hot topic here over the last couple of weeks, with the effectiveness of the pertussis vaccine under particular scrutiny. So I thought some of you may be interested in an article about some new research which has been done. Some extracts below:

QUOTE
Ever since the 2010 California pertussis outbreak, in which there were 9,154 cases of pertussis, the most in 63 years, and 10 infants died, many people, especially parents, are wondering why we are seeing more pertussis these days.

Is it because the pertussis vaccines simply don't work, as the anti-vaccine movement would have you think?

Or is it because there are higher rates of unvaccinated kids these days and parents using alternative immunization schedules, instead of the standard immunization schedule from the CDC?

A new commentary that will appear in the May issue of Pediatrics, "Why Do Pertussis Vaccines Fail?," may finally give us some answers.

While the title of the article might have you think that all of the blame lies with the pertussis vaccines, that certainly isn't the case. While there can be vaccine failures with the pertussis vaccines, just like any other vaccine, that doesn't mean that the vaccine doesn't work for most children.

One of the problems is that the DTaP vaccine likely doesn't work as well as the older DTP vaccine and likely doesn't work as well as we used to think it did. So instead of efficacy of 84 to 85%, as was once believed, it is likely closer to just 71 to 78%.


QUOTE
the high rates seen in 2010 in California are still well below the rates that were seen in the prevaccination era, when the attack rate of pertussis in the United States was as high as 157 per 100,000 people, with about 200,000 cases a year.
[There were 2010 9000 cases in 2010.]
QUOTE
What's the answer? It certainly isn't for more kids to follow alternative immunization schedules or to simply skip vaccines all together. Natural immunity isn't going to keep newborns and infants from getting pertussis, the ages which are most at risk for life-threatening infections, as they catch pertussis from people around them, including those working on their natural immunity. Natural infections don't even provide life-long protection against pertussis, as some people believe. That natural immunity wanes fairly quickly too.


QUOTE
In a 2009 study that appeared in Pediatrics, researchers found that "vaccine refusers had a 23-fold increased risk for pertussis when compared with vaccine acceptors, and 11% of pertussis cases in the entire study population were attributed to vaccine refusal." And since pertussis is highly contagious, with every primary case typically infecting as many as 17 other people, it makes sense that higher rates of children using vaccine exemptions could be at least one of the factors in these outbreaks.

In fact, one article, "Geographic Clustering of Nonmedical Exemptions to School Immunization Requirements and Associations With Geographic Clustering of Pertussis," found that "geographic pockets of vaccine refusal are associated with the risk of pertussis outbreaks in the whole community."


More:
http://pediatrics.about.com/b/2012/04/25/w...s-outbreaks.htm

#2 Indatree

Posted 28 April 2012 - 06:35 PM

Thanks for posting this, due with second child in July and thinking a lot about this topic. Thankfully family are happy to get vaccinated too to keep bubs safe.

#3 new~mum~reenie

Posted 28 April 2012 - 06:50 PM

Please PLEASE be aware that the cause of Australia's whooping cough epidemic since 2008 is a NEW STRAIN of pertussis that is vaccine resistant!!!

People who are vaccinated are getting it and sharing it around under the assumption that they are vaccinated, therefore 'safe' and 'cant have whooping cough' therefore continue going to school/work/shops etc

QUOTE
"The prolonged whooping cough epidemic in Australia that began during 2008 has been predominantly caused by the new genotype of B. pertussis," said one of the study authors, Associate Professor Ruiting Lan, of the UNSW School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences.
"The genotype was responsible for 31 percent of cases in the 10 years before the epidemic, and that's now jumped to 84 percent -- a nearly three-fold increase, indicating it has gained a selective advantage under the current vaccination regime.
"The vaccine is still the best way to reduce transmission of the disease and reduce cases, but it appears to be less effective against the new strain and immunity wanes more rapidly. We need to look at changes to the vaccine itself or increase the number of boosters," Associate Professor Lan said.


http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/...20321105331.htm

#4 new~mum~reenie

Posted 28 April 2012 - 06:54 PM

QUOTE
WHEN my nine-year-old son woke up last month with a low fever and a scratchy throat, I didn't think beyond how to manage work with him at home.
The symptoms gave way to a barking cough a few days later, so I rang my GP's office. My son had been exposed to whooping cough at school, I told the nurse, but it can't be that because he's fully vaccinated. I just wanted to check what to do. "Bring him in and tell the girls at the desk," she said. "They'll put him in isolation until the doctor sees him." Thinking she hadn't heard, I said: "But he's vaccinated." "I know," she said. "But he might have whooping cough all the same."

As I was to learn, Australia is in the grip of the largest and longest-running epidemic of whooping cough since mass vaccination started more than half a century ago. The numbers have been increasing dramatically - 38,606 cases reported last year, compared with only 4863 in 2007 - and eight babies have died since 2008. This is despite Australia boasting one of the highest vaccination rates in the world. But, as it turns out, even some of those who've been vaccinated are falling sick


http://m.theaustralian.com.au/news/feature...6-1226337795424

#5 Imaginary friend

Posted 28 April 2012 - 07:08 PM

Th whooping cough vaccine is not perfect - it does not last longer than about 10 years and it does not always entirely cover one against getting whooping cough - but people who do get it usually get much milder cases than unvaccinated people.


Also  I would dispute that whooping cough rates are ever increasing - whooping cough is well known for being cyclical - so some years are worse than others for no of cases - but   the overall trend over a larger number of years is not ever increasing.


It must also be said the the number of cases reported does not neccesarily mean there are more cases - have to factor in whether more people are getting tested etc - highly likely there were many undiagnosed cases in previous years, especially in adults.

#6 Soontobegran

Posted 28 April 2012 - 07:30 PM

NMR---please note that all not all people with Pertussis have the strain for which vaccines are less effective.
I am sorry if I don't understand the point of your post? Are you saying that people shouldn't bother?

#7 Soontobegran

Posted 28 April 2012 - 07:30 PM

dp

Edited by soontobegran, 28 April 2012 - 07:50 PM.


#8 new~mum~reenie

Posted 28 April 2012 - 07:35 PM

Fair enough, although many are saying it is 'resistant'.
Here is the original findings from a professor in NSW

It is still important for people to be aware of this strain though, as they are less likely to seek medical attention and assume it isn't whooping cough.

QUOTE
Australia’s prolonged whooping cough epidemic has entered a disturbing new phase, with a study showing a new strain or genotype capable of evading the vaccine may be responsible for the sharp rise in the number of cases.

A team of Australian scientists, led by the University of New South Wales (UNSW),  believe this emerging new genotype (called prn2-ptxP3) of the Bordetella pertussis bacterium may be evading the protective effects of the current acellular vaccine (ACV), and increasing the incidence of the potentially fatal respiratory illness, according to the study published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases.

http://newsroom.unsw.edu.au/news/health/sh...-whooping-cough


#9 new~mum~reenie

Posted 28 April 2012 - 07:45 PM

STBG - as outlined in the article in my second of my posts, people are assuming they are ok because they are immunized - and not seeking medical treatment. They are the people that are more likely to be shopping etc and exposing those even more susceptible (elderly, people with newborns etc)

No way am I saying dont bother immunizing.

But as a mum who is 30 weeks pregnant working at a checkout, I am keenly aware that I am at a higher risk of catching this other strain. That my soon to be newborn is more susceptible to catching this strain etc. I will be far more protective in the first 6 months this time compared to when DS was born.

Knowledge is power.

Edited by new~mum~reenie, 28 April 2012 - 07:46 PM.


#10 IamzFeralz

Posted 29 April 2012 - 07:37 AM

QUOTE (Poet in New York @ 28/04/2012, 07:13 PM) <{POST_SNAPBACK}>
We also need to remember that in Australia the whooping cough vaccine changed in 1987 from whole cell vaccines to acellular, to curb the side-effects. I do wonder whether Australia will eventually need to revert back?


Eventually they will be able to modify the vaccine to include the new strain I would think in a similar way that the flu vaccine is modified each year to include new strains of the flu.  However, pertussis has always been a tricky one to nail down because of the fact that its so contagious and immunity wanes so quickly.  The immunity from natural type infection also wears off faster over time compared to other diseases, although it lasts longer than vaccine induced immunity.

QUOTE
Duration of immunity against pertussis after natural infection or vaccination.
Wendelboe AM, Van Rie A, Salmaso S, Englund JA.
Source

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. awendelboe@unc.edu
Abstract

Despite decades of high vaccination coverage, pertussis has remained endemic and reemerged as a public health problem in many countries in the past 2 decades. Waning of vaccine-induced immunity has been cited as one of the reasons for the observed epidemiologic trend. A review of the published data on duration of immunity reveals estimates that infection-acquired immunity against pertussis disease wanes after 4-20 years and protective immunity after vaccination wanes after 4-12 years. Further research into the rate of waning of vaccine-acquired immunity will help determine the optimal timing and frequency of booster immunizations and their role in pertussis control.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15876927





#11 mumtoactivetoddler

Posted 30 April 2012 - 07:08 PM

I can't give hard evidence but when the woman from the Department of Health NSW rang me last year as my DD was a mandatory report for WC. She stated that they are seeing far more kids who are vaccinated with it, and they are going to have to do more research as to why. (We have had large numbers of vaccinated kids with it at our school).

#12 CandiceH

Posted 04 May 2012 - 04:30 PM

The reason the Department of Health would be saying there are lots of vaccinated kids getting whooping cough is because there are more vaccinated kids than unvaccinated kids.

small example:
If you have 1,000 people and 920 are vaccinated and, of course, 80 people unvaccinated.
(similar to childhood vaccination rate for Australia, around 92%, depending on age group)

The vaccine is about 70% effective (sorry, off the top of my head here)

so, we have 40% of people who get whooping cough despite being vaccinated.

40% = 368 notification of whooping cough in our imaginary vaccinated group.

Lets say every unvaccinated person gets whooping cough

100% = 80 people

This example clearly demonstrates WHY there are more notifications for vaccinated than unvaccinated YET all of the unvaccinated people in this example got Whooping Cough.

Hope this helps

Candice




2 user(s) are reading this topic

0 members, 2 guests, 0 anonymous users

 

Get your FREE Baby & Toddler Show ticket!

Get your free ticket to the Sydney Essential Baby & Toddler Show for September 25-27 - register online now.

Win Love Child Season 1 & 2 on DVD

To celebrate the release of Love Child Season 2 on DVD from July 9, Essential Baby and Universal Sony Pictures Home Entertainment are giving away Love Child Season 1 & 2 on DVD to 13 lucky winners.

10 things I wish my pre-baby self knew

I look back at my pre-baby self and laugh at how ridiculously easy I actually had it. I remember complaining about how tired I was and how little time I had.

Creative ways to store your child's art

Ideas for storing your child's artworks have moved on from sticking them to the fridge door before guiltily dumping them in the bin.

Child abuse ignored because 'it's not your children': Waleed Aly

Waleed Aly takes apart the immigration law that's designed to "protect politicians"

How a newborn niece changed star Australian basketballer's life

In August 2013 star basketball Abby Bishop was 24-years-old and in the prime of her sporting career.

Guilt is my new shadow

No one warned me that when I gave birth there would be an additional side order of guilt.

12 brilliant Ikea hacks for kids’ rooms

Check out these creative upcycling ideas that transform regular Ikea items into something special for your little ones.

Child's nightmare about 'man with a light' turned out to be real

For three days, a three-year-old boy had been saying there was "a man with a light" outside his window at night.

Toilet truths after giving birth

The thought of going to the toilet after giving birth is often feared, but there are ways to make it less painful.

Woman asks strangers for $1 million to stop her having an abortion

An anonymous woman is taking an extreme moral and ethical stand by seeking $1 million in donations to prevent her going ahead with a planned abortion.

How a woman's dying wish made another woman a mum

"I kind of think about, 'What did I do beforehand? What kept me so busy back then?' Because now I'm really busy."

The parenting do-over: what six parents did differently second time around

In playgrounds across Australia, you can hear parents lamenting, "When we have our next baby I swear I won't be doing THAT again".

A solo birth, a wasp swarm and a forest fire: mum and baby's amazing story of survival

Desperate, out of petrol and low on food, a new mother lit a fire in the hope of attracting attention.

Boy found on swing died of hypothermia and dehydration, autopsy finds

The story was chilling and heartbreaking: a three-year-old boy was found dead in a Southern Maryland park, his mother pushing him on the swing.

Child's play and laughter help battle fatigue

Feeling fatigued? Uh-huh, thought as much. Join the queue.

Dad shares entertaining 'how to hold a baby' clip

For many new dads, their own child is the first baby they have ever held. So one dad has posted an instructive YouTube video titled "How to Hold a Baby".

The Australian baby with 100,000 Facebook fans

She may be only eight months old, but Egypt has already amassed more than 100,000 fans and received a letter from royalty - Hollywood royalty that is.

Tongue tie: what you need to know

Tongue and lip tie can lead to many problems for babies - and their parents. Here are the signs of tongue tie and how it's treated.

My daughter is small but that doesn't matter

My daughter may be small, but it's my job as her parent to refocus back where it belongs - on who she is as a person

Wet wipes linked to rise in allergic reactions

The government has issued a health warning after a rise in allergic skin reactions has been linked to a preservative found in some wet wipes.

 
Advertisement
 
Advertisement
 
 
 

What's hot on EB

27 funny ultrasound pictures

Ultrasounds give you a look at your growing baby ... and sometimes what appears to their womb-buddy, or your bub in an amusing position.

What all parents should know about safe babywearing

A picture of Ryan Reynolds always gets the girls talking, and a recently shared photo has done exactly that - but this time, it's for all the wrong reasons.

Baby's head shape reveals potentially fatal condition

Thinking her baby just had an unusually shaped head, a mother was shocked to discover it was instead linked to a dangerous condition.

Why IVF success rates may not be what you think

Transparency, accountability and responsibilityare essential measures to protect IVF vulnerable patients.

Mother-in-law 'from hell' inspires survival guide

The happily ever after Nicola Milan had imagined wasn't to be – and she blames her mother-in-law.

Owning a pair of nail scissors does not make me a hairdresser

It's been a whole year since sleeping in until 10am. A whole year since having a peaceful shower.

The 83 children who were tragically let down in the last decade

Over a 10-year period, 83 children died from domestic violence abuse in NSW, with three quarters of the victims aged five years or under, the NSW Ombudsman has revealed.

Is it reasonable to expect your partner to give up drinking in pregnancy?

From the moment that I fell pregnant with my son, I realised just how much my life had already started to change.

Stroke victim joins class action against makers of popular contraceptive pill

"I was terrified I would always be this way. The pill needs to come with a much higher warning."

Sexy time

Why you should get excited about scheduling sex

Unfortunately, the belief that sex should always be spontaneous is a myth. It just isn't.

When newborn photoshoots get messy

When it comes to newborn photoshoots, it is all about the timing.

Expert Q&A: Gross motor skill development in toddlers and preschoolers

Dr Katie Heathershaw answers questions about jumping, toe walking, riding a bike and being pigeon toed.

'Samuel is our firstborn, and he will never be forgotten'

Having lost their firstborn at one day old, the Carrolls were overjoyed to welcome their daughter Isobel into the world a year later.

Dad takes miraculous catch while feeding baby

One American father has taken multitasking to a new level at a Cubs-Dodgers baseball game at Wrigley Field.

Name your baby Quinoa, win a $10K gift card

Choosing a name for your little bundle of joy is always a major decision. It can be something traditional, trendy, creative … or inspired by the menu of your favourite chain restaurant.

On the 10th anniversary of my son's death

This day marks a significant day. Today marks 10 years since I lost my son Kai.

'Help - my toddler hits me!'

My toddler has started hitting when he gets frustrated, is feeling ignored, or just thinks it might be fun.

The top 6 misleading parenting terms

From 'morning sickness' to 'the terrible twos', there are many parenting terms that are misleading.

When 'good' nannies go bad

While most nannies take pride in their work, there can be some who have a hidden side.

Woman hospitalised for skinny jeans injury

Beware: skinny jeans might be bad for your health.

Gauze seeding: the bacteria-breeding birth trend

A number of women having caesarean deliveries are now taking steps to give their baby a better 'microbiome' start in life.

Jimmy Fallon writes new children's book for dads

Jimmy Fallon, host of NBC's The Tonight Show, recently wrote a children's book about every father's secret wish for their baby's first word to be "dada" - not "mama".

28 names for babies born in winter

Looking for some baby name inspiration for a bub born during the colder months? Here are 28 options from around the world to consider.

 

FREE TICKET

Get your FREE ticket to the Baby & Toddler Show

Get your free ticket to the Sydney Essential Baby & Toddler Show for September 25-27 - register online now.

 
Advertisement
 
 
Essential Baby and Essential Kids is the place to find parenting information and parenting support relating to conception, pregnancy, birth, babies, toddlers, kids, maternity, family budgeting, family travel, nutrition and wellbeing, family entertainment, kids entertainment, tips for the family home, child-friendly recipes and parenting. Try our pregnancy due date calculator to determine your due date, or our ovulation calculator to predict ovulation and your fertile period. Our pregnancy week by week guide shows your baby's stages of development. Access our very active mum's discussion groups in the Essential Baby forums or the Essential Kids forums to talk to mums about conception, pregnancy, birth, babies, toddlers, kids and parenting lifestyle. Essential Baby also offers a baby names database of more than 22,000 baby names, popular baby names, boys' names, girls' names and baby names advice in our baby names forum. Essential Kids features a range of free printable worksheets for kids from preschool years through to primary school years. For the latest baby clothes, maternity clothes, maternity accessories, toddler products, kids toys and kids clothing, breastfeeding and other parenting resources, check out Essential Baby and Essential Kids.